ELA - Foundational Skills

Arizona’s English Language Arts Standards - KINDERGARTEN

Reading Standards: Foundational Skills

Print Concepts

  • K.RF.1  Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print.
    1. Follow words from left to right, top to bottom, and page by page.
    2. Recognize that spoken words are represented in written language by specific sequences of letters.
    3. Identify that a sentence is made up of a group of words.
    4. Recognize the difference between a letter and a printed word.
    5. Understand that words are separated by spaces in print.
    6. Recognize and name all upper and lowercase letters of the alphabet.

Phonological Awareness

  • K.RF.2  Demonstrate understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds (phonemes).
    1. Identify and produce sounds (phonemes) in a spoken word.
    2. Recognize and produce rhyming words.
    3. Count, pronounce, blend, and segment syllables in spoken words. Blend and segment onsets and rimes of single-syllable spoken words. Blend spoken phonemes to form one-syllable words (e.g., /m/ /a/ /n/).
    4. Isolate and pronounce the initial, medial vowel (long and short vowels), and final sounds (phonemes) in three-phoneme words. (*This does not include CVCs (Consonant-Vowel-Consonant) ending with /l/, /r/, or /x/.)
    5. Add, substitute, and delete individual phonemes in simple, one-syllable words to make new words.

Phonics and Word Recognition

  • K.RF.3  Know and apply phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.
    1. Demonstrate basic knowledge of one‐to‐one letter‐sound correspondence by producing the primary or most frequent sound(s) for each consonant and the five major vowels.
    2. Decode regularly spelled closed-syllable words.
    3. Read 50 common high-frequency words by sight from a research-based word list.
    4. Distinguish between similarly spelled words by identifying the sounds of the letters that differ.


  • K.RF.4  Read emergent-reader texts with purpose and understanding.


Arizona’s English Language Arts Standards - KINDERGARTEN

Writing Standards: Foundational Skills

Sound-letter basics and Handwriting

  • K.WF.1  Demonstrate and apply handwriting skills.
    1. Match upper and lower case manuscript letters.
    2. Write upper and lower manuscript letters, with reference to a model.
    3. Write left to right using appropriate spacing between words.
  • K.WF.2  Demonstrate and apply sound-letter concepts when writing.
    1. Orally segment the phonemes in any single-syllable, spoken word.
    2. Demonstrate and understand that each syllable is organized around a vowel sound.


  • K.WF.3  Know and apply phonics and word analysis skills when encoding words.
    1. Represent phonemes in simple words, using letter-sound relationships. Write or select an initial or final consonant when a medial vowel is provided.
    2. Spell VC (Vowel-Consonant) (e.g., at, in) and CVC (Consonant-Vowel-Consonant) (e.g., pet, mud) words with short vowel sounds.
    3. Accurately write grade-level appropriate words, as found in a research-based word list.  (*See guidelines under Word Lists in the ELA Glossary.)
    4. Attempt phonetic spelling of unknown words.