Students who are in kindergarten (under age 6) should be able to say the following sounds in all positions of words:


    p – (pie, apples, cup)                            k – (cat, crackers, cake)

    m – (monkey, hammer, comb)                 g – (gum, wagon, egg)

    w – (witch, flowers)                             t – (table, potatoes, hat)

    h – (hanger)                                        f – (fork, elephant, knife)

    b – (book, baby, bathtub)                    ng – (hanger, swing)

    d – (dog, ladder, bed)                          dg – (jars, angels, orange)

    n – (nails, bananas, can)                        y – (yes, thank you)


    Students who are in first grade (under age 7) should be able to say all of the sounds in the first list plus:


    sh – (shoe, station, fish)                       v – (vacuum, TV, glove)

    l – (lamp, balloons, bell)                       ch – (chair, matches, sandwich)


    Students who are in second grade (under age 8) should be able to say all the sounds in the first two lists plus:


    s – (saw, pencil, house)                         l blends – (blocks, clock, flag)

    s blends – (spoon, skates, stars)            voiced th – (this, feathers, bathe)

    z – (zipper, scissors, keys)                   r blends – (brush, crayons, train)


    Students who are in third grade (under age 9) should be able to say all the sounds in the first three lists plus:


    unvoiced th – (thumb, toothbrush, teeth)         vowel r – (bird)

    r – (radio, carrots, car)


    Students who are in fourth grade or higher (9 years and up) should be able to say all speech sounds mentioned on this page. However, please note that the law indicates that articulation skills must impact educational performance before a child can qualify for services.


    When determining normal from disordered language skills, compare the child to his/her normally developing peers in the following areas:


    Receptive Language Skills


    1.      Does the child fail to grasp explanations?

    2.    Does the child have difficulty following directions and class discussions?

    3.    Does the child have a poor listening vocabulary?

    4.    Does the child have difficulty retaining what is read or told to him?

    5.    Does the child have poor comprehension of time and space concepts (such as front/back, yesterday/today)?



    Expressive Language Skills


    1.      Does the child have difficulty using grammatical forms including:

    ·        verb tenses and verb forms

    ·        pronouns

    ·        complete sentences

    ·        proper word order in a sentence

    2.    Does the child have difficulty expressing ideas relating to a subject?

    3.    Does the child seem to have a low vocabulary?

    4.    Is the child non-verbal and you do not believe it is due to shyness?

    5.    If the child tells you a story/ event on the playground, do you have trouble following the story?
    Fluency: Related to "stuttering" or "stammering" or cluttering". It deals with the smoothness of the child's speech. For example:
        Prolongations- "Hiiiiiiiii Ms. Smiiiiiiith."
        Repetitions- "Hi, hi, hi Ms. Smith."
        Blocks- "H---Hi Ms. Smith."
    Voice: Relates to the quality of the child's voice. If the child demonstrates a high/low pitch, high/low tone, hoarseness, etc.